The mining and metals sector has an extraordinary potential to contribute to social and economic development, especially where good policy and governance frameworks are in place. It produces the basic materials to develop and operate essential infrastructure that enables development. It can transform the lives of employees, their families and communities for the better, provided that projects are developed and eventually closed in a socially and environmentally responsible manner. Where governments create the conditions for mining, metals and other businesses to invest and flourish, progress towards the achievement of development goals can be accelerated. Realising mining’s full potential contribution to sustainable economic and social progress requires collaborative action between government, companies, and civil society.