Vehicle Interaction Controls

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Operating mobile equipment safely and productively in complex mining environments is essential for all mining and metals operations. If the inputs that support successful vehicle interactions erode or fail, then serious injuries or fatalities can result.

Each year, transport and mobile equipment accidents cause between thirty and forty per cent of industry fatalities, and of these, half involve pedestrians. In 2017, there were 11 vehicle interaction fatalities at mines operated by ICMM company members.

ICMM, alongside mining companies, leading suppliers, industry groups, researchers, regulators, unions and others are working to eliminate these fatalities by:

Based on this work, ICMM is coordinaating the development of a knowledge hub for use by the entire mining sector. These guidance materials and practical tools can assist site leaders to:

From these materials, site leaders can learn and employ industry good practices to make informed decisions about adopting new technology controls.

ICMM believes that sharing information promotes rapid innovation. As much of the guidance material is case study based, all users are invited to share their own experience as future contributors.

Knowledge hub

Finding relevant information

This resource is based on:

The nine level EMESRT Mobile Equipment Control Level model has been used to organise the content.

EMESRT nine level model


Improve the design of mines and mining equipment.


Site requirements

Control examples

Equipment specifications, standards, mine design/plans.

Case study


Segregation controls

Control examples

Berms, access control, traffic segregation, work planning separating mining activities.

Case study


Increase operational discipline. This can include technology supports for existing controls (eg cameras in cabins).


Operating procedures

Control examples

Formal operating and maintenance practices: e.g. road rules,communication protocols, work instructions, isolations etc.

Case study


Authority to operate

Control examples

Training, licences, induction, site access control etc.

Case study


Fitness to operate

Control examples

Fatigue and stress state, alcohol and other drugs management, medicals to confirm capability etc.

Case study


Operating compliance

Control examples

Equipment pre‐start check, equipment health monitoring, operator performance monitoring etc.

Case study


Introduce new technology to:


Operator awareness

Control examples

Cameras, live maps, mirrors, lights, visible delineators, simple proximity alerts.

Case study


Advisory controls

Control examples

Alerts with advice: e.g. directional proximity alerts, fatigue monitoring systems, over‐speed, vehicle stability.

Case study

  • Glencore Waterval Pedestrian vehicle detection system.

Intervention controls

Control examples

Non-operator intervention: equipment slow‐stop, interlock for start or rollback, retarder etc.

Case study


This vehicle interaction resource is a collaborative initiative between the ICMM Risk Management Working group and the Earth Moving Equipment Safety Round Table (EMESRT)

It builds from the Queensland Resources Council (Australia) 2017 publication: Mobile Equipment Interaction Field Guide, a case study resource that shares industry knowledge and good practice.

The ICMM thanks the QRC and contributors to the Field Guide who all agreed to share their experiences through the ICMM.