Advances throughout human history have been marked by the contribution of metals, from the Bronze and Iron Ages through the lead, copper and tin mines of the Romans to the Industrial Revolution. In today’s technological age metals and minerals remain essential in almost all aspects of life; they enable farming, healthcare, communications, water and energy supply, transport, space technology and the construction of our cities. After all, how would we build a modern home without nails and screws? Without metals and minerals there would be no hinges, doorknobs, electrical wiring or paint. There would be no mobile phones, computers, drink cans, toothpaste, cars, ships, aircraft, excavators, cranes, bridges, power plants or space stations… the list is endless. No matter where we are in the world, metals and minerals are part of our everyday life.